Unit 8 Outline



Western Civilization, 5th Edition,  Jackson J. Spielvogel


Chapter 25.  The Beginning of the Twentieth Century Crisis: War and Revolution

     War and Revolution  - Russian Revolution


Chapter  26 The Futile Search for a New Stability: Europe Between the Wars, 1919-1939

     The Soviet Union  (758-760)


The Western Experience by Chambers, Hanawalt, Rabb, Woloch, and Grew


Chapter 28: The Great Twentieth-Century Crisis
  Revolution in Russia (993-1001)

  Stalin's Soviet Union  (1020-1025)


Discussion Questions:
  1. What reforms had been introduced in Russia under Alexander II? What policies did Alexander III pursue? With what results?
  2. Describe the background and nature of the Revolution of 1905? What precipitated the Revolution? What were its consequences? 
  3. Describe the program of the Provisional Government and the obstacles it faced.
  4. In what sense was "War Communism" a "mixture of principles and expediency"? How did these policies lead to trouble with the peasants?
  5. Describe the Soviet response to the nationalities problem (a) in theory and (b) in practice.
  6. Explain the background, nature and results of the New Economic Policy.
  7. Explain the objective of the First Five-Year Plan and the system established to carry it out. How would you evaluate the effects of the Five Years plans on Soviet society?



Russian Revolution

Count Witte
Constitutional Democrats
Social Revolutionary party
Social Democratic Labor party

Nicholas II
Father Gapon
"Bloody Sunday"

October manifesto

Duma Executive Committee

Petrograd Soviet
March/February Revolution
Provisional Government
Alexander Kerensky
General Kornilov

November/October Revolution
Congress of Soviets
Council of People’s Commissars
Red and White Armies
Leon Trotsky

Kronstadt mutiny

soviet republics


Soviet Union under Stalin

Supreme Soviet
Soviet of Nationalities
Central Committee
General Secretary


"permanent revolution"

First Five-Year-Plan


collective farm

liquidation of the kulaks
Second Five-Year-Plan
constitution of 1936
purges and purge trials